Primary Care Euroscicon 2018
In the progressively shattered world of health care, one thing remains constant: family physicians are devoted to treating the whole person. Family medicine's cornerstone is an on-going, personal patient-physician relationship focusing on united care. Family medicine, previously known as Family Practice is a speciality dedicated to inclusive health care for people of all ages; the specialist is named a family physician or family doctor. Unlike other specialties that are limited to a specific organ or disease, family medicine provides care for patients of all genders and every age, and supports the patient in an intricate health care system.
Family medicine is a class of primary care that provides on going and complete health care for the individual and family across all ages, genders, diseases, and parts of the body; family physicians are frequently primary care physicians. According to the World Organization of Family Doctors (WONCA), the aim of family medicine is to supply personal, inclusive, and sustained care for the single in the circumstances of the family and the community.
Primary care is the day-to-day healthcare given by a health care supplier. Typically this supplier acts as the foremost contact and principal point of sustained care for patients within a healthcare system, and organizes other specialist care that the patient may require. Primary Health care is one of the initial levels of approach to individuals, families, & community with the national health system in many countries. It is a way of attaining health for all. It should be designed as a fundamental part of any country’s plan for socioeconomic development.
Health Care Diversity
Diversity is a fluid concept, one that evolves alongside society and changing ideologies. However, diversity itself is a backbone of good governance and leadership. And in healthcare, a diverse leadership — or lack thereof — has lasting effects on care delivery.
Consistently, diversity is referred to the people of different racial or ethnic backgrounds, a term associated to phenotypic characteristics. Gender, too, has historically been included in the diversity parasol. But now, diversity encloses a much larger spectrum including life experiences, lifestyle choices and ideas, such as socioeconomic status and sexual orientation. It even takes into consideration the social determinants of health.
Diversity is significant in any field, and the nursing industry is an exceptional example of why. The patient demography is as diverse as this country’s population. An ethnically and culturally diverse applicant pool results in more diverse and culturally sensitive healthcare providers — and happier, healthier patients. What’s more, study after study has shown that diverse groups are better problem solvers and are more prepared, which is very much important in healthcare!
Adolescence is the second decade of life, starting just before the teenage years. During this stage of life, you may find you have complications that you did not have as a child. As your body and mind alter, you start to have new kinds of medical and emotional concerns. For this reason, it can be useful to speak with doctors and nurses about your thoughts, feelings and behaviours.
Adolescent medicine also known as hebiatrics. It is a medical subspecialty that is emphasized on care of patients who are in the adolescent phase of evolution, generally varying from the last years of elementary school until graduation from high school.
Adolescents are concerned with a broad diversity of issues, like Hyperactivity, Distractibility, low grades in school or avoiding school, Low self-esteem, depression and anxiety. These conditions often show up in adolescence, and can be very severe. Hence, Behavioral Health Programs help adolescents to deal with such conditions.
Aspects of Primary Health Care
1.Adequate supply of safe drinking water and basic sanitation
There is a close relationship between supply of water and sanitation. If there is no supply of water, the sanitary condition will automatically be affected. It is due to the deficiency of safe drinking water and poor sanitation, the gastrointestinal diseases like diarrhoea, cholera, typhoid; roundworm, dysentery, etc. make us the victim. Therefore, a good supply of safe drinking water is absolutely necessary.
2. Health education
Good health is essentially and inherently important to live a worthwhile human life. Health education communicates with the facts that help to promote the ways of healthy living and to solve basic health problems.
A balanced diet is highly obligatory to live a healthy life. Sufficient supply of food and management of proper nutrition is required to get a balanced diet. Different health related problems emerge along with malnutrition. Therefore, proper supply of food and management of nutrition is one of the important aspects of Primary Health Care.
Immunization is a broadly accepted level of protection against a large number of communicable diseases. People of developing countries due to insufficiency of proper knowledge of health, poor economic status, and advanced curative health service are not in a position to give the expenses of treatment. In such a situation, immunization is the only major preventive measure against various communicable diseases such as T. B., Tetanus, Diphtheria, Whooping cough and polio. So, the primary health care is giving more importance to immunization programmes for the safety and evolution of health.
5.Provision of essential drugs
Primary Health Care has emphasized on the management of most necessary drugs. The health posts and sub health posts of our villages and communities supervise and provide the required medicines for diarrhoea, fever, pain, etc. free of cost. In addition, medicine is also donated for minor injuries and wound.
6.Availability and Distribution of Medicine
One of the major intentions of the primary health care is to spread and make the most prevalent medicine available, to the areas which help to control the primary illness.
7.Treatment of Communicable Diseases
In the absence of proper time and treatment on communicable diseases various countryside people have died immature death. Treatment of various such diseases can be conducted at the local level with short training preparation. So, in order to control death due to communicable diseases the primary health care coordinates the training programmes for local people, which help in the treatment of communicable diseases at local level.
Asthma is a common chronic disease of the airways of lungs, worldwide. It is commonly caused in childhood, affecting an estimated 7 million children. It is characterised by variable recurring symptoms like Wheezing, Coughing, and Shortness of breath, Chest tightness or pain. Other universal symptoms in infants or young children may be a history of repetitive bronchitis, bronchiolitis, or pneumonia; a persistent cough with colds; and/or repetitive croup or chest rattling. The pathophysiology of asthma is complex and involves airway inflammation, intermittent airflow obstruction, and bronchial hyper responsiveness. Asthma is thought to be caused by the combination of both genetic and environmental factors. Diagnosis is usually based on the pattern of symptoms, response to therapy over time, and spirometer.
Clinical Health Services
Clinical health service means a particular diagnostic, therapeutic, rehabilitative, preventive or palliative method or a series of such methods that may be individually recognised for billing and accounting purposes. It mainly concentrates on disease prevention, community, and individual education and wellness. The programs under clinical health service comprises of traditional preventive health services such as immunizations, maternal-child health care, and communicable disease control; fixed assistance programs such as WIC, and supplemental food program; and developed medical services such as primary care for children and adults, and dental services.
Community Health Services
The mission of Community Health Services (CHS) is to endorse, support and entitle the residents to be healthy, build capacity for self-sufficiency, and ameliorate the health and well-being of the community. The Community Health Services concentrates on neighbourhood-based community strategies that address root causes of health and social inequity in public education and income and economic development.
Key strategies that the Sector presently uses include:
1. Boosting healthy choices through policy development, community engagement, and education and information distribution.
2. Preserving the health and well-being of residents with appropriate interventions and health policies based on state-of-the-art knowledge.
3. Assuring access to quality health and social services through collaboration with individuals, families, institutions and available resources in the community.
4. Providing culturally and ethnically sensitive services to the community.
5. Appealing in on-going planning and evaluation in partnership with the community.
While we all feel sad, capricious or low from time to time, some people experience these feelings extremely, for long periods of time (weeks, months or even years) and sometimes without any obvious reason. Depression is more than just a low mood – it's a serious condition that has an impact on your physical and mental health. Depressed people may feel gloomy and extremely hopeless, dejected, or worthless. Other symptoms expressed may comprise senses of guilt, irritability, or anger. Further feelings expressed by these individuals may involve feeling ashamed or an expressed restlessness. These individuals may remarkably lose interest in activities that they once considered delightful to family and friends or otherwise experience either a loss of appetite or overeating. Experiencing problems focusing, remembering general facts or details, otherwise making decisions or experiencing relationship difficulties may also be noteworthy factors in these individuals' depression and may also lead to their attempting or actually committing suicide.
Geriatric medicine focuses on health care of elderly people. Its objective is to boost health by preventing and treating diseases and disabilities in older adults. There is no age limit at which patients may be under the care of a geriatrician or geriatric physician, a physician who specializes in the care of elderly people. Rather, this decision is regulated by the individual patient's requirements, and the availability of a specialist. It is significant to note the difference between geriatrics, the care of aged people, and gerontology, which is the study of the aging process itself. Geriatrics differs from traditional adult medicine because it focuses on the distinct needs of the elderly person.
Health Care Delivery
Our health system is shattered and much of the problem lies with the fragmentation of our delivery system which operates low-quality and ineffective care in a country filled with highly skilled health care professionals.
The health care sector in the United States consists of a collection of clinicians, hospitals and other health care provisions, insurance plans, and purchasers of health care services, all driving in various configurations of groups, networks, and independent practices. Some are based in the public sector; others manage in the private sector as either for-profit or not-for-profit entities. The health care sector also encompasses some voluntary regulators and others governmental regulators.
The Affordable Care Act offers opportunity for delivery system reform to assure that patients are getting the proper care at the proper time in a coordinated, collaborative and organized manner.
Immunization is the process by which an individual’s immune system becomes secured against an agent which is known as Immunogen. In simple terms, immunization is the process whereby a person is made immune or resistant to a communicable disease. Immunization is done through various techniques, most commonly Vaccination.
Vaccines stimulate the body’s own immune system to safeguard the person against subsequent infection or disease. The most essential elements of the immune system that are ameliorated by immunization are the T cells, B cells, and the antibodies B cells produce. They are important for both adults and children in that they can protect us from the many diseases out there. Immunization not only protects children against deadly diseases but also helps in developing children's immune systems. Through the use of immunizations, some infections and diseases have almost entirely been eliminated throughout the United States and the World. One example is polio.
A systematic program or procedure planned to resist illness, maintain maximum function, and advocate health. It is central to health care, chiefly to nursing care at all levels i.e.., primary, secondary, and tertiary and in all patterns. The health maintenance system alerts medical staff on the estimate of preventative care expectations for any determined patient beside treatment standards; need to maintain the persistent disease conditions of the patient.
Hypertension is otherwise known as high blood pressure (HBP). It is a long term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently increased. High blood pressure generally does not cause symptoms. Long term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, loss of vision, and chronic kidney disease.
High blood pressure is classified as either primary high blood pressure or secondary high blood pressure. About 90–95% of cases are primary, whereas remaining 5-10% of cases are categorized as secondary high blood pressure. Primary high blood pressure is defined as high blood pressure due to wide-ranging lifestyle and genetic factors. Secondary high blood pressure is defined as high blood pressure due to a recognizable cause, such as chronic kidney disease, narrowing of the kidney arteries, an endocrine disorder, or the use of birth control pills.
Diagnosis of hypertension may be made when one or both readings are high: systolic (the pressure as the heart pumps blood around the body),given first; or diastolic (pressure as the heart relaxes and refills with blood), given second.
Menopause is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop indelibly, and they are no longer able to get children naturally. Menopause normally occurs between 49 and 52 years of age. Medical professionals often elucidate menopause as having occurred when a woman has not had any vaginal bleeding for a year. It may also be defined by a decline in hormone production by the ovaries.
Signs and Symptoms: During early menopause transition, the menstrual cycles remain regular but the interlude between cycles begins to lengthen. Hormone levels begin to alter. Ovulation may not occur with each cycle.
The date of the ultimate menstrual period is generally taken as the point when menopause has occurred. During the menopausal conversion and after menopause, women can experience a broad extent of symptoms.
Menopause is caused mainly due to three reasons such as Age, Premature Ovarian Failure (the cessation of the ovarian function before the age of 40 years) and Surgical menopause, Ovarian aging.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach that upgrades the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problem related to life-threatening illness, through the prevention and solace of suffering by means of early identification and exemplary assessment and treatment of pain and other problems, physical, psychosocial and spiritual - World Health Organization.
Palliative care is provided by a distinctively-skilled team of doctors, nurses and other specialists who come together and work with a patient’s other doctors to furnish an extra layer of support. It is suitable at any age and at any phase in a severe illness, and it can be provided along with therapeutic treatment. It gives comfort from distressing symptoms like Pain, Shortness of breath, Drowsiness, Constipation, Nausea, Loss of appetite, and Problems with sleep. It also helps to deal with the side effects of medical treatments received by the individuals.
Patient safety is a regulation that underlines safety in health care through the prevention, diminution, disclosing and analysis of medical error that repeatedly leads to adverse effects. In some hospitals, patient safety is a top priority. Strong health care teams lessen infection rates, put checks in place to prevent mistakes, and assures strong lines of communication between hospital staff, patients, and families.
But some hospitals don’t have teams that work well together, or good leadership to secure that patient safety is the number one priority. When one person makes a mistake, there isn’t a good team ready to catch that mistake. Patients can experience dangerous complications, recovery is slower, and some patients even die avoidably.
Primary Care: Leadership and Effective Government
Primary care research is now well placed to conduct a broad re-vitalization of academic medicine, responding to the questions of pertinence to practitioners, patients, communities and Government. Key areas for future primary care research leaders to focus on include revealing undergraduates early to primary care research, combining this early exposure with doctoral and postdoctoral research career support, further enlarging cross disciplinary approaches, and developing functional measures of output for future primary care research investment.
Primary care researchers are developing skills and strength in approaching research topics of applicability to clinicians, patients and communities, through leading cross-disciplinary research programs and associations with other medical disciplines, basic and social sciences, health services researchers and policy makers. Our research can guide to direct changes in practice, unlike much basic bench-top or tightly controlled experimental research. Testing potency (rather than efficacy) means we have a better idea of the outcome in real life of mediation within the difficulty of health care, and a much better chance of incorporating issues of reach, access and equity. The place of associative networks of clinician researchers linked to academic centers has been censorious in this.
Primary Care: The Challenges of a Changing World
Today, we face unparalleled demographic and epidemiological changes. In 2005, 19 per cent of all deaths were among children and 53 per cent were among people aged 60 years and older. Non-communicable disease mortality will increase from 61 per cent to 68 per cent universally, and alike tendency will occur in Africa despite the HIV/AIDS pervasive and poor socioeconomic circumstances.
Scientific and technological alterations bring the probability of new prevention and care possibilities. Information and communication technology generates opportunities for more thorough and undeviating documentation of decisions at the point of care, better progression of care, and more effectual communication between organisations and sectors. Diagnostic innovations create convenient and cost-effective opportunities for the refinement of diagnostic accuracy. New drug treatments are materializing and may change the approach to diseases.
One of the most momentous cultural developments is that ‘patients’ are acting more and more as ‘consumers’. In terms of socioeconomic developments, the gap between rich and poor is expanding, and there is a growing concentration of wealth at the top of the income distribution. More and more people are living with a risk of poverty, certainly when they have ‘unstable’ jobs.
A rare disease is any disease that affects a little portion of the population.
Most rare diseases are genetic, and thus are present throughout the person's complete life, even if symptoms do not instantly appear. Many rare diseases appear untimely in life, and about 30 per cent of children with rare diseases will perish before reaching their fifth birthday. With a single recognized patient only, ribose-5-phosphate isomerase inadequacy is considered the rarest genetic disease.
A disease may be examined scarce in one part of the world, or in a specific group of people, but still be prevalent in another.
Global Genes have estimated that more than 300 million people worldwide are living with one of the 7,000 diseases they define as "rare" in the United States.
To raise awareness among people, Rare Disease Day is held in Europe, Canada, and the United States on the last day of February.
Substance Abuse and Addiction
People use drugs and alcohol for numerous reasons – to unwind from work, have fun, socialize, deal effectively with problems or complexities, and escape life or dull emotional/physical pain. Using substances to survive doesn’t make problems go away, and can make them inferior or add new problems to the mix. Becoming reliant on drugs in order to survive, rather than getting help or finding positive solutions, can create longer term problems.
Substance abuse is also known as Drug Abuse. Substance use is a influenced use of a drug in which the user ingests the substance in amounts or with methods which are detrimental to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
Substance embezzle is the deleterious use of drugs or alcohol for non-medical purposes. Habitually corresponding with the use of illegitimate drugs, legal substances can also be misused, such as alcohol, prescription or over-the-counter medication, caffeine, nicotine and volatile substances (e.g. petrol, glue, paint).
Signs and Symptoms of Substance Abuse or Addiction:
a. Regularly or extended substance use to cope emotionally, socially or physically.
b. Engaging in deleterious or risky behaviours as a result of substance use (e.g. drink driving, unprotected sex, using dirty needles)
c. Relationship problems (e.g. arguments with partner, family, friends, or losing friends)
d. Physical tolerance –requiring more of the substance to experience the same effects.
e. Removal – physical and mental withdrawal symptoms when you are not using the substance or requiring the substance to feel “normal”.
f. Losing dominance of your substance use – being dependent or unable to stop even if you want or try to.
g. Substance use takes over your life (e.g. spending a lot of time utilizing, discovering or getting the substance and recuperating from the effects)
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne illness that is spread by the day-time active Aedes species of mosquito, the mosquito which is also responsible for the transmission of dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. Various species of Aedes mosquitoes include A. aegypti and A. albopictus, known as the yellow fever mosquito. These mosquitoes can survive in both indoor and outdoor environments. The virus was first isolated in the Zika forest of Uganda in 1947, hence named as such. The infection or disease, known as Zika fever or Zika virus disease, frequently causes no or only mild symptoms, similar to a very lenient form of dengue fever.